E.g. A quantity of substance whose mass in grams is numerically equal to its molecular Law of Multiple Proportions Proposed by Dalton in 1803, this law states that:’ When two elements combine to form two or more compounds, then the differe nt masses of one element, which combine with a fixed mass of the other, bear a simple ratio to one another’. It is obtained by adding the atomic masses of all the atoms present in one molecule. Branches of Chemistry Scientific Notation Similarly, 0.00016 can be written as 1.6 x 10–4. Here, K is the SI unit. A mixture is a combination of two or more elements or compounds in any proportion categories – physical properties and chemical properties. Mixtures are of two types, homogeneous and heterogeneous. e.g. Metric System was based on the decimal system. Ch 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry. negative values) are possible in Celsius scale but in Kelvin scale, negative temperature is not possible. They contain all thecertain digits plus one doubtful digit in a number. Molecules are classified as homoatomic and heteroatomic. Basic chemistry concepts – Matter, Element, Atom, Molecule, Compound and Mixture. The substances that react among themselves to bring about the chemical changes are known as reactants, whereas the substances that are produced as a result of the Proceedings will not be considered for LNC. •  All zeros placed to the right of a number are significant. Physicswallah Typed Notes. In case of even figure, the preceding digit remains unchanged. The  reliability of  a  measurement  is  indicated  by  the  number  of  digits  used  to Mass % of the element=Mass of element in 1 molecule of the compound    x 100 Ch 5: States of Matter. They will serve the following purposes: The series covers all established fields of chemistry such as analytical chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry including electrochemistry, theoretical and computational chemistry, industrial chemistry, and catalysis. It is basically concerned with laws and theories of the different branches of chemistry. Lect 01: Laws of Chemical Combination. Homoatomic molecules are made up of the atoms of the same element and heteroatomic molecules are made The  smallest  particle  of  an  element,  which  may  or  may  not  have  independent Therefore the molecular mass of CO2 is 44 amu. Post Author: Chemist; Post … determine the number of significant figures. These are given below: (A) In Agriculture and Food: (i) It has provided chemical fertilizers such as urea, calcium phosphate, sodium nitrate, ammonium phosphate etc. unit, 1 inch = 2.54 x 10-2 m due  to  kinetic energy of liquid/gases, Can   diffuse   And For  example,  6.9  has  two  significant figures, while 2.16 has three significantfigures. If the digit happens to be 5, the last mentioned or preceding significant figure is increased by one only in case ithappens to be odd. Click here. These properties can be classified into two 1 L = 1000 mL, 1000 cm3 = 1 dm3. • All substances are made up of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms.Atoms  of  the  same  element  are  identical  in  shape,  size,  mass  and  other properties. Moles of solute  +  Moles of solvent, Mole fraction of the solvent =              Moles of the solvent Springer is part of, Responsible Editor, Charlotte Hollingworth. Click here. • Inorganic Chemistry-This branch deals with the study of compounds of all other elements except carbon. mass. • Physical  Chemistry-The  explanation  of  fundamental  principles  governing various chemical phenomena is the main concern of this branch. • Atom is the smallest unit that takes part in chemical combinations. structure and properties of matter. They all contain carbon. E.g. Get the table of contents of every new volume published in Lecture Notes in Chemistry. We can write 232.508 as 2.32508 x102 in scientific notation. 8.375 is rounded off to 8.38 while8.365 is rounded off to 8.36. Mole is defined as the amount of a substance, which contains the same number of chemical units (atoms, molecules, ions or electrons) as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure carbon-12. In simple terms, molecular mass of a substance expressed in grams is called gram molecular mass. Burning of Mg-ribbon in air. Basic Concepts from Organic Chemistry (PDF 103p) This note covers the following topics: Aliphatic Compounds, Hydrocarbons, Alcohols, Aldehydes And Ketones, Acids, Esters, Ethers, Alkyl Halides And Other Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds, Simple Compounds Containing Nitrogen, Cyclic Aliphatic Compounds, Mercaptans Or Thioalcohols, Aromatic Compounds, Hydrocarbons and Phenols. Significant Figures Organiccompounds are those, which occur in living sources such as plants and animals. Air is an example of a mixture ’x’. Chemistry is called the science of atoms and molecule. •  The decimal point does not count towards the number of significant figures. For example, the atomic mass of oxygen = 16 amu Therefore gram atomic mass of oxygen = 16 g. Molecular mass of a substance is defined as the average relative mass of its molecule SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY Chapter 1 Class 11 Download in pdf. Note—Temperature below 0 °C (i.e. Click here. Accuracy is the agreement of a particular value to the true value of the result. In terms of weight, molarity of the substance can be expressed as: To calculate the volume of a definite solution required to prepare solution of other Reactions in Solutions-- The concentration of a solution can be expressed in any of is used for the ionic compounds.  then, 5 feet and 2 inch = 62 inch, 3. It Elements are further classified into metals, non-metals and metalloids. known as fluid, They   can   diffuse 5. represent it. have the same composition throughout the sample. as compared to the mass of an atom of C-12 taken as 12. The decimal place does not It expresses as to how many times the molecule of a substance is heavier than 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon. Examples of homogeneous mixtures are air, seawater, gasoline, brass etc. •Atoms cannot be created, divided or destroyed during any chemical or physical change. It is also a particularly suitable forum for volumes addressing the interfaces of chemistry with other disciplines, such as biology, medicine, physics, engineering, materials science including polymer and nanoscience, or earth and environmental science. Physical properties are those properties which can be measured or observed without changing the identity or the composition of the substance. Books published in this series are conceived as bridging material between advanced graduate textbooks and the forefront of research. Therefore, gram molecular mass of oxygen = 32 g. Sum of atomic masses of the elements present in one formula unit of a compound. 3. chemistry: the science that deals with the composition and properties of substances and various elementary forms of matter. The unit of molar volume is litre A mole represents a collection of 6.022 x1023( Avogadro’s number) chemical units..The mass of one mole of a substance in grams is called its molar mass. Volume of the solution in litre       V, The Molarity of the solution can also be expressed in terms of mass and molar mass, Molarity of the solution =                                          Mass of the solute per mol or millilitre per mol, The mass percentage of each constituent element present in any compound is called According to this law equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure should contain equal number of molecules. CH is the empirical formula of benzene. have been prepared artificially. Today, ‘amu’ has been replaced by ‘u’ which is known as unified mass. CBSE Syllabus Class 12 Maths Physics Chemistry ... CBSE Syllabus Class 11 Mathematics biology chemistry ... CBSE Syllabus Class 10 Maths Science Hindi English ... CBSE Syllabus Class 9 Mathematics Science English Hindi ... Revised Syllabus for Class 12 Mathematics. • Compounds are  broadly classified  into  inorganic and  organic  compounds. Basic Chemistry. In simple terms, atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is the gram atomic mass or gram atom. Search for: Types of chemical reactions. ’A chemical compound always consists of the same elements combined together in the same ratio, irrespective of the method of preparation or the source from where it For example, 16.0 has three significant figures, while 16.00has four significant figures. The rounding off procedure is applied to retain the required number of significant initial volume and V2= volume of the new solution. … •  Biochemistry-This branch deals with the chemical changes going on in the bodies of living organisms; plants and animals. Physicswallah Full Chapter Handwritten Notes . Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Class 11 Notes Chapter 1 • Importance of Chemistry Chemistry has a direct impact on our life and has wide range of applications in different fields. For example, 2.003 has four significantfigures, 4.02 has three significant figures. figures. Chemical properties are characteristic reactions of different substances; these include acidity or basicity, combustibility etc.Many properties of matter such as length, area, volume, etc., are quantitative in nature.