A history of welding, especially on galvanized metal, and typical symptoms and signs are sufficient to make the diagnosis. The mechanism is uncertain but may be cytokine-mediated. 1. Metal fume fever (MFF) is an occupational disease caused by the inhalation of metal oxides, primarily zinc oxide. Otherwise it is hidden from view. If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Greenberg MI, Vearrier D. Metal fume fever and polymer fume fever. ADVERTISEMENT: Radiopaedia is free thanks to our supporters and advertisers. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=391§ionid=42069914. Much less commonly, bilateral patchy ground-glass opacities, or even consolidations, may be seen, with an appearance mimicking acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). These responses are not part of the metal fume fever syndrome. Oximetry or arterial blood gases and chest radiography are used to exclude other disorders involving acute lung injury, if this is suspected. Although metal fume fever has also been invoked as a generic effect of exposure to numerous other metal oxides (copper, cadmium, iron, magnesium, and manganese), there is little evidence to support this. Specific drugs and antidotes. LXII (4): 296. Blanc P., Wong H., Bernstein M.S., Boushey H.A. Pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxemia are not consistent with pure metal fume fever. Zinc aside, it is contentious if some or most of these metals actually contribute to the pathogenesis of metal fume fever. Whilst the exact mechanism for this condition is not known, the primary cause is thought to relate to the inhalation of zinc oxide fumes produced when zinc-coated steel or zinc-containing alloys (e.g. Metal fume fever is a (typically) self-limiting disease due to exposure to fumes emanating from working metal, e.g. Polymer fume fever is a related, yet distinct, condition. Decontamination is not necessary; by the time symptoms develop, the exposure has usually been over for several hours. The white blood cell count may be elevated (12,000–16,000/mm3). adj.. an occupational disease, characterized by malarialike symptoms, due to inhalation of particles and fumes of metallic oxides. Metal Fume Fever -- Antimony: Metal fume fever is a flu-like illness which can result from inhalation of antimony fumes. Administer supplemental oxygen and give bronchodilators if there is wheezing and consider other diagnoses, such as an allergic response (See Bronchospasm). With the exception of exposure to cadmium fume serious complications are rare. • Systemic poisoning. The underlying pathogenesis is still being researched but is likely secondary to both immune and non-immune mediated mechanisms. : Cytokines in, [28.] An occupational disorder caused by the inhalation of fumes or metallic oxides; characterized by symptoms similar to influenzas. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. There is no role for these procedures. {"url":"/signup-modal-props.json?lang=us\u0026email="}. This site uses cookies to provide, maintain and improve your experience. It does not involve sensitization (it is not an allergy) and can occur with first exposure (in persons previously naïve to inhaled zinc oxide). Nevertheless, up to 2,500 cases are still diagnosed in the USA per annum, and in Victoria, Australia, 85 cases were identified in a retrospective study looking at the preceding 5.5 years: Exposing metal to very high temperatures, such as occurs in welding, and related processes, results in the emanation of "metal fumes", which are defined as solid submicron-sized particles formed by the condensation of aerosolized metal compounds 1. Blood or urine zinc determinations do not have a role in clinical diagnosis of the syndrome. : An experimental human model of, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, HEALTH HAZARDS RESULTING FROM EXPOSURE TO ZINC AND ITS INORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRY/ZAGROZENIA ZDROWOTNE WYNIKAJACE Z NARAZENIA NA CYNK I JEGO ZWIAZKI NIEORGANICZNE W PRZEMYSLE, Metal Finishes & Finishing Processes & Procedures, Metal Finishing Association of Southern California, Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool, Metal Forming Machinery Makers' Association. Typically, all symptoms resolve on their own within 24–36 hours. The relative proportions of the various metals are conditional upon the form of welding employed, the metals being worked, etc. Blanc P.D., Boushey H.A., Wong H., Wintermeyer S.F., Bernstein M.S.   •  Accessibility. Metal fume fever. Therefore symptoms tend to maximize in severity on the first return to work after a weekend or any time away from the workplace. 3. if exposure to the fumes continues through the working week then rapid tolerance is usual, such that symptoms are much better by Friday. Metal fume fever usually occurs in workplace settings involving welding, melting, or flame-cutting of galvanized metal (zinc-coated steel), or in brass foundry operations. alkali metal one of a group of monovalent elements including lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. Metal Fume Fever (MFF) is an occupational hazard where the inhalation of zinc oxide smoke causes welders to feel ill. If hypoxemia or wheezing is present, consider other toxic inhalations (See Gases, Irritant). Check for errors and try again. Specific levels. Polymer fume fever is a related, yet distinct, condition. Mechanism of toxicity. welding. Disclaimer: These citations have been automatically generated based on the information we have and it may not be 100% accurate. Due to gradual improvements in health and safety over the past 100 or so years, a marked decline in recorded cases of metal fume fever has been seen. Metal fume fever results from inhalation of zinc oxide (neither ingestion nor parenteral administration induces this syndrome). Contact your institution's library to ask if they subscribe to McGraw-Hill Medical Products. Metal Fume Fever is an acute allergic condition experienced by many welders during their The main cause of this exposure is usually breathing the fumes from welding, cutting, or brazing on galvanized metal. Enhanced elimination. Fresh air and treatment of symptoms usually alleviate the conditions. The condition occurs among workers engaged in welding, metal fabrication, casting, and other metal-working tasks. Metal Fume Fever is the name for an illness that is caused primarily by exposure to zinc oxide fume (ZnO) in the workplace. (2012). Prevention starts with regular testing of the air on the job and knowing how to avoid unnecessary exposure. Other useful laboratory studies include CBC. The ACGIH-recommended workplace exposure limit (TLV-TWA) for zinc oxide fumes is 5 mg/m3 as an 8-hour time-weighted average, which is intended to prevent metal fume fever in most exposed workers. Diagnosis. Metal fume fever has a very long list of historic synonyms, related to its historic association with zinc working, including Monday fever, brazier disease, brass founder’s ague, brass chills, copper colic, zinc fever, zinc fume fever, zinc chills, copper fever, foundry fever, spelter’s shakes, smelter’s chills, the shakes, the smothers, galvanised shakes, galvanizer’s poisoning, welder's ague, acute brass poisoning, galvo and metal shakes 1-3. First published case is from 1831 1. The air level considered immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is 500 mg/m3. acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), rapid onset of symptoms (5-10 hours) following exposure to the fumes, fever, rigors, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, malaise, generally, the condition is self-limiting with no long term sequelae. There is no specific antidote. Copyright © McGraw HillAll rights reserved.Your IP address is