Absolute Idealism, philosophical theory chiefly associated with G.W.F. Fichte and, at least in his early work, F.W.J. Hence it happened that the active side, in opposition to materialism, was developed by idealism ? The fact remains however that Hegel’s Idealism is a powerful principle of historical development and historically, it has always been the idealists who have emphasised human agency in social change. But who can tell what the next discovery will be? Hegel’s philosophical movement is not a single plant blossoming to yield fruit but many plants blossoming to yield fruit like an organic living organism; a giant network of interconnected roots and foliage that nourish each other and through this collective organic entity grows into a flourishing organic entity. Spirit’s determinacy manifests itself in numerous ways: art; literature; law, religion; economy; social structures; states and communities; relations with others (friendships and families, etc.). The hero is the founder of states and is the unwitting embodiment of the Spirit’s purposive activity. Hegel’s idealism has to be appropriated in full consciousness of its limitations and one-sidedness. It is a philosophy about the world of experience; it is a philosophy concerned with incarnate (or embodied) living in the corporeal world which we exist in; it is a philosophy of the real, of thought and action united instead of separated. Along with J.G. “Geisteswissenschaft,” for instance, refers to the subjects we ordinarily call “the humanities.” But literally it should “the spiritual sciences.”, Wittgenstein’s maxim has the unfortunate ring of truth to it if we take it to be a map of the spiritual country that a given community may inhabit: “Wovon man nicht sprechen kann, darüber muss man schweigen.”. Having witnessed social change in Britain thanks to industrialisation, and in France thanks to the guillotine, Hegel looked forward to a less traumatic and chaotic revolution in Germany which he saw as led by the social elite – philosophy professors, enlightened monarchs and a meritocratic civil service, rather than the blind destruction wrought by mobs and factories. Not only did the Idealists see perception as an active process, they also saw the interpretation of one’s experience, how you conceived of and reacted to a situation, as an active process. It is sometimes referred to as Kantianism (although that more correctly also involves acceptance of Kant's ethical and epistemological views). Absolute idealism is an ontologically monistic philosophy chiefly associated with G. W. F. Hegel and Friedrich Schelling, both of whom were German idealist philosophers in the 19th century. The Absolute is the result, and the realized, manifested in the world through the activity of Spirit. Continuing with post-Kantian Idealism, I shift to give a brief introduction and summary overview of the philosophical outlook of Georg W.F. But if Marx is not to be accused of voluntarism, we must take account of his aphorism: “Men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please; they do not make it under self-selected circumstances, but under circumstances existing already, given and transmitted from the past. ” (op. For, in a sense, man has a fixed state—but that is what he is unfolding to be or realize. It is filial, communitarian, particular, and nationalist. In this unfolding of the Spirit into manifested community there are four archetypes that Hegel outlines: The hero; the victim; the person; and the citizen. The “concept of value” was observable in the writings of the political economists, but exchange of commodities is a real act which can be witnessed and grasped viscerally by anyone. Only the social process itself as a whole can work out and reveal the real content of a concept; this insight is available to the theorist to the extent that they can observe and make intelligible what exists or is already at least in the process of development. Either A defeats B or vise-versa; both A and B defeat each other; A subdues B or vise-versa; or, teleologically but never in historical practice, A and B mutually recognize each other. Marx ridicules this idealism, commenting wryly: “The man within the civil servant is supposed to secure the civil servant against himself” (Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, 1843), noting that a ‘civil society’ necessarily operates within the civil service. Hegel believed that this idea, which has been called “normative essentialism,” applies to social institutions as well as well as useful artefacts, and is crucial to his social philosophy. The victim is the lowest person in History because the victim is someone that History has passed over. He saw states as guarantors of freedom, not instruments of oppression and was resolutely opposed to destructive, revolutionary methods of achieving social progress. Discourses on Minerva is the personal blog of a pilgrim scholar, journalist, and cultural critic. This manifestation of the state is, in essence, just the enlargement of the family to its exhaustive end. This leaves us with the same end as Fichte and Schelling earlier; a community of love bound by rights, duties, and obligations to each other which can only stand if we discharge our duties and obligations to one another in the determinate fashion that the Spirit has given us. It is to be the product of the purposive activity of the Spirit in times past. However, the idealists did not make forms of practice explicitly the subject matter of their systems; rather they took logical categories, concepts, ideas, etc., as their subject matter, thus justifying their description as “Idealists.” A critical reading of Hegel will show however that content of these ideal forms is forms of activity.