Uganda is the number one fruit producing nation in Africa. Once the onion has cured properly, the outer leaf scales will help retain internal moisture and protect the onion during shipment. If one or more of these practices are omitted, disease management is significantly compromised. Adjust applicator speed, pressure, nozzle size, etc. You can get all the details about Agriculture. Later maturing varieties may show 20-50% of their tops broken over at the neck for optimum maturity. The agitation may be produced by jet agitators, volume boosters (sometimes referred to as hydraulic agitators), and mechanical agitators. Symptoms: Foliar symptoms of center rot are typically observed as severe chlorosis or bleaching of one or more of the center leaves of infected onions (Figure 16). From June to December, 2016 for instance, Vidalia onion prices varied from $15 - $19 per 40 pound box whereas prices for Michigan yellow globe master container 16 3-pound mesh sack were $10-$12, repacked sizes were $7-$10 and 25-pound sack red globe jumbo onion was $8 (The Packer, 2016). Eggs are laid in the soil and the larva feed on below ground portions of plants. Nationwide, onion production has been steadily decreasing since its peak in 2007 where 7,098 million pounds was produced. Moisture can condense on the cold onion surfaces promoting the growth of sooty mold. Compiled and published annually by the Center for Agribusiness & Economic Development, Report Number: AR-15-01 (September). This occurs when the bulb is exposed to sunlight for an extended period of time. Regeneration of the CA atmosphere may be prohibitively expensive with large void volumes (partially-filled rooms). In any event the carbon dioxide levels should be monitored and not allowed to go above 7% as this will cause translucent scale to develop. The experiment was consisted of varieties of onion arranged in completely randomized block design with four replications. In these cases, the growing point may have been affected and subsequent growth will be abnormal, increasing the incidence of doubles. The harvester lifts the onions onto an elevator chain and the soil is separated from the onions. In Manyara region, Bashay Onions require more fertilizer than are used in most vegetable crops because fertilization of both plantbeds and dry bulb onions must be considered. Soil that is too dry may result in the seeder riding up on the soil and not sowing the seed at the proper depth. Plan to start your nursery bed according to the dry season of your planting area. Appropriate soil conditions including no soil clods, moisture at field capacity or slightly wetter and soil free of debris including plant material is absolutely essential for an effective fumigation. As long as the growers continue to adhere to the recommendations from Extension Specialists and Researchers, this crop will continue to rank high in the top ten vegetables produced in the state. The stale seedbed technique employs a non-selective herbicide such as paraquat or glyphosate to kill emerged weeds before planting onion. Magnesium (Mg) levels in the soil must be adequate for good onion growth. The scientific name and botanical name of onion are Allium cepa which belongs to the family “Amaryllidaceae” and to the genus “Allium”. Disease cycle and epidemiology are similar to purple blotch. cepae. Calibrate with clean water when applying toxic pesticides mixed with large volumes of water. This has not always been correlated with detection during laboratory screening. Excessive amounts of Zn can be toxic, so apply only if needed. At pressures of 60 to 200 psi, these nozzles produce small droplets that penetrate plant canopies and cover the underside of the leaves more effectively than any other nozzle type. In addition, rules have given the Georgia Department of Agriculture the authority to determine acceptable varieties for the Vidalia industry. Also, an inevitable yield and yield component improvement activities including of plant nutrient management, crop water requirements and scheduling programs, plant population densities, and disease and insect pest control systems were identified and now carrying on at different research centers and higher learning institutes. If weekly sales are less than the capacity in one room, arrangements must be made to warm onions outside the CA room. When CA facilities are opened for maintenance or unloaded, time should be allowed to let oxygen levels in the air build up to 21%.